Author: Leanne Caron Piper

Publication Date: 2007




Guelph's most impressive aesthetic quality - its abundant historic limestone architecture - is no accident. Three essential components for a rich architectural legacy came together at the right time and place in Guelph. The geography of the town offered an accessible and abundant supply of dolomite limestone. A plentiful supply of hardworking quarry owners and quarrymen was not far behind. And finally, experienced and skilled carvers and stonemasons completed the essential ingredients to build a town that would rival any other town in Upper Canada for the moniker 'The Limestone City.'


The area's limestone is distinct in colour and consistency, and it proved to be the ideal raw material for a generation of skilled yet distinct trades - stonecutters, stonemasons, and stonecarvers.



The Grand River basin consists of three major bedrock formations - soft sedimentary limestone, shale, and sandstone.1 For the most part, this composition allows water to move through the rock pores. In what is referred to as the 'Guelph bedrock formation,' the limestone is less porous, and as the glaciers in this area receded 15,000 years ago, the exposed solid limestone bedrock became the pathway that would become, "the present Great Lakes drainage system."2


Guelph limestone is often characterized by its colour and physical properties - distinctly different from Kingston limestone. The characteristics of Guelph limestone are attributed to the concentration of magnesium that makes the limestone softer and easier to quarry and carve. It also gives Guelph stone a warm amber-beige colour. Kingston limestone is a harder gypsum-based stone and is closer to a grey-blue tone.


In Guelph, the limestone layer is close to the surface with varying degrees of thickness. An early map of Guelph, referred to herein as the 'Ballinard Survey,' shows a ridge of limestone being quarried by John C. Chadwick (circa 1856) with a notation that the grade is 23-feet-high (see Figure 1).3 During a recent site visit to the Guelph Limestone Quarry operations at 490 Wellington Road East, it was noted that the extensive cliff face is measured at a height of over 250 feet.4


Historic Guelph V46P6

Figure 1: Ballinard Survey of John C. Chadwick, circa 1856.  Arrows indicate location of quarrying activity.

(Courtesy of Guelph Museums).



With abundant forests, Guelph's first buildings were hastily built of logs and then of milled lumber. These were functional structures for a town in its infancy. As the town began to take shape, more substantial commercial and industrial structures were built for permanence and durability. The first stone building was built in 1828, Galt's 'Seminary' (later known as the 'Stone School'),5 (see Figure 2) followed by the first stone house built by James D. Oliver in 1831 on Canada Company Lot 1.6


Historic Guelph Plan of Tower V47P6Figure 2: Plan of the Town of Guelph, Donald McDonald, Surveyor, October 1847.

(Courtesy of Guelph Museums).


The construction of the Wellington County Court House (1841-1843) was the most substantial project of its era, and it remains the oldest public stone building in Wellington County. The Court House was designed by William Thomas of Toronto, but the construction was contracted to William Allen of Guelph. The stone is local, but the exact source is unknown. Morrison and Emslie were contracted for the masonry and likely used a combination of stone close to the building site, as the difficulty of transportation made on-site quarrying a necessity whenever possible. Emslie also operated a quarry along Bristol Street.


Historic Guelph Wellington County Courthouse V46P7

The Wellington County Courthouse is the oldest public stone building in Wellington County.

(Private collection of the author).


Between 1830 and 1850, several stone buildings were constructed, but for the most part, wood was still the building material of choice. Guelph did not possess an abundant supply of clay suitable for brickmaking and therefore, while it was a popular building material in other areas of the province, it was not a common choice in Guelph until after the railroad was built and brick could be brought in by train.


Historic Guelph V46P7

Figure 3: Section of 1847 Map of Guelph by Donald McDonald.

(Courtesy of the Guelph Museums).


In the 1850s, Guelph's limestone heritage began to take shape. One of the most significant factors contributing to the increased use of limestone was a sudden increase in the number of experienced stonemasons. A sidebar to The Plan of the Town of Guelph, October 1847, makes note of the number of stonemasons. In 1843, there were 15 stonemasons and in 1847 there were 21 (see Figure 3).


Between 1850 and 1880, Guelph's 'Stone Age' was at its zenith. Attracted to the Guelph area by the building of the railway bridges of the Grand Trunk Railway, the skills of the stonemason were in demand as significant public and commercial building contracts beckoned - the Town Hall (1856), the Wellington Hotel (1876), Central School (1872), as well as numerous churches and estate homes.


The beauty of Guelph stone did not go unnoticed elsewhere. In 1856, the Toronto Colonist reported that, "Guelph is particularly fortunate in possessing a stone easily worked and very pleasing in appearance."The Colonist further notes the future prosperity of the quarrying operations:


"The opening of the Grand Trunk has given the means of turning the stone quarries of Guelph to valuable account. There are now four in full operation, and arrangements are being made for the delivery of stone all along the railway."8


The aesthetic of Guelph limestone particularly impressed the entourage of Prince Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, during his visit on September 12, 1860. In an account of the tour in the St. James' Chronicle in Great Britain, it was written:


"It is the most attractive town and neighbourhood I have yet beheld in Upper Canada. There are several really splendid buildings... the town is a stone one: most of the public, and many of the private buildings, are constructed of this material, which is peculiar, differing from any other stone which I have seen in Canada. It is a kind of limestone but to my observation seemed to partake of the saponaceous."9


This account is particularly satisfying considering the Prince of Wales also visited Kingston.



In some areas of the city, evidence of early quarrying activity is still visible. Past their usefulness and long abandoned, these quarries are a reminder of the booming 19th century limestone industry. In some cases (along Bristol and Essex Streets), the terraced stone face blends seamlessly into the landscape and makes a pleasant backyard landscape curiosity. In other areas (Water Street, Huron Street, Stone Road), the abandoned quarry sites have been quickly and efficiently reclaimed by 'Mother Nature.'



John C. Chadwick, Esq. owned one of the earliest properties to be extensively quarried in the city. In the early 1850s, he had a survey drawn for the sale of park lots north of Waterloo Avenue. The quarry sites are clearly marked along a ridge of land stretching parallel to the Speed River on the north side.



According to the Directory of Wellington County (1871), David Kennedy (no relation to William Kennedy) was operating a significant quarry site and he was listed as a 'Quarry Owner,' living on Market Street. In the 1881, he was listed living in a stone house at what is now 225 Waterloo Avenue. Kennedy was the first owner of what is now Guelph Limestone Inc. (DoLime) quarry.


Kennedy was in business with George and Albert Pike. Kennedy and Pike supplied the stone used in the building of the Alma Block on Wyndham Street, and Walter Grierson was noted as the stone-cutter. The partnership was dissolved in 1868. David Kennedy also served the City as South Ward Councillor for many years. Tragically, Kennedy was killed by the collapse of a masonry wall on October 13, 1893, while he was supervising construction of the Opera House on Wyndham Street.10



Quarry owners David Kennedy and George Pike are also credited with the 1876 commercial buildings on Gordon Street near Essex/Waterloo under the name Kennedy & Pike.11 George Pike, who was born in 1821, came to Guelph from England. Pike's Quarry was located on Waterloo Avenue, west of Edinburgh Road.



When Arthur Wells built his majestic home facing the Speed River (now known as Manor Park) in 1857, the stone was quarried on the property. The massive quarry-faced blocks used to build Manor Park are reminiscent of the stone used to build the great piers of the existing CNR bridge across the Speed River.12


Historic Guelph V46P10

Figure 4: An 1877 Map of Guelph shows Kennedy (1), Bell (2) and Emslie (3) quarries on opposite sides of the Speed River.

(Source: Atlas of The County of Wellington).


Matthew Bell acquired Front Lot 4, Division G, from A. M. Jackson and was using quarried stone from the property by the late 1850s. Bell never built a dwelling on the property, preferring to live closer to town in the Brooklyn area where he built three fine stone residences in succession to showcase his craftsmanship. Located at 96-98 Water Street, 40 Albert Street and 49 Albert Street, these dwellings are all designated under the Ontario Heritage Act as buildings of architectural and cultural significance.


Historic Guelph House of Heads V46P1096-98 Water Street, Guelph. Matthew Bell built this house in 1853 and it is often referred to as the "House of Heads."

(Photo courtesy of the author).


Bell's legacy in Guelph is enduring. It seemed there was never a shortage of contracts. According to Bell's grandson:


"During the winter when no building was carried on, Grandpa Bell would work on the sculpture. He would select blocks of stone and lay them up for winter work. Then it was that he would do such work as fancy lintels for doorways, ready to use in building in spring and summer."13



Perhaps the most visible evidence of early quarrying activity today is found along Bristol and Essex Streets, where exposed limestone forms the natural grade between the streets. Robert Emslie was a stonemason by trade but acted as a contractor for major projects. Stone was quarried for his commissions from a limestone ridge extending along Bristol Street between Yorkshire Street and Edinburgh Road (see Figure 4). Stone used in the construction of St. James the Apostle Anglican Church was quarried here.14
Historic Guelph Evidence V46P11
Evidence of the Elmsie Quarry is still visible among Bristol Street, between Yorkshire Street and Edinburgh Road.
(Photo courtesy of the author).
Slater's Quarry was located roughly in the area of 96 Essex Street, where a cider mill built in the 1850s still stands. The Cider Mill was built from stone quarried on site, and this quarry also provided stone for the construction of St. James the Apostle Anglican Church.
Historic Guelph St. Patricks Ward Quarries V46P11Figure 5: St. Patrick's Ward Quarries, 1877. Birmingham Quarry and 'Quarry Lot' located on Huron Street. 
(Source: Atlas of The County of Wellington).
Two former quarry sites are identified in the St. Patrick's Ward, along Huron Street. Unlike other identifiable sites to the west, these two quarries were not extensively excavated but did supply stone for nearby building projects. When it was decommissioned, the Birmingham Quarry on the east side of Huron Street was filled with water. This site is now occupied by Crompton Ltd. and the quarry was backfilled and is currently used as a parking lot. Evidence of the old quarry is still visible along the rear of the property (see Figure 6).
Historic Guelph V46P12
Figure 6: Circa 1940's. Aerial photograph shows Birmingham Quarry along Huron Street in St. Patrick's Ward at the right. The pond in the foreground is now the parking lot for the Crompton Co.
(Photo reproduced with the permission of Crompton Co.).
Although it is outside of the city limits, the quarry that operated at the Ontario Reformatory is worth noting. Opened in 1911, the extensive operation provided the stone for the magnificent and extensive landscaping features - stone walls, terraced gardens, gateway, and bridges - that grace the Reformatory grounds.
Stone from the quarry was shipped by rail for use by the Department of Highways in the building and repair of roads across Ontario. The quarry employed between 50 to 80 inmates at any given time during the height of its production. During a tour in 1927, a Guelph Evening Mercury reporter noted the efficiency of the operation: "Apart from its orderliness and beauty, there is a hustle and bustle and an almost feverish activity. Work, work, and men, men everywhere, singles and in battalions."15
Historic Guelph V46P13Quarrying operations at the Ontario Reformatory, circa 1930.
(Photo courtesy of Department of Corrections).
Today, one major quarry remains in production - Guelph Limestone Ltd., located at 490 Wellington Street West. By far Guelph's largest and longest operating quarry, the original deed was granted to Mr. Wingfield in 1832. In 1837, Mr. Wingfield sold 600 acres to Mr. Howitt. It is not known exactly when excavation of limestone began, however in the mid-1850s, John C. Chadwick clearly marked areas of quarrying activity on his survey (Ballinard Survey, 1856), noting the adjacent area was "Woodland" and that the ridge was "Steep rock 23-feet-high." By 1872, the quarry was in full production to supply stone for the construction of the present Church of Our Lady Immaculate.
In 1902, the quarry was sold to a group called the Christie Henderson Company, and later sold again in 1917 by Mr. Kennedy and began operating under the name The Standard White Lime Company. The softer top layer of building stone had been excavated, and the harder grey limestone was then used for the production of lime for mortar. A huge lime kiln was built on the property.
Historic Guelph Aerial Photo V46P14
Aerial photo showing lime kiln at Guelph DoLime Ltd.
(Photo courtesy of Guelph Museums).
In 1978, BeachviLime, a subsidiary of Dofasco, purchased the plant from Canadian Gypsum and changed the name to DoLime Ltd. In 1992, the company was purchased by a Belgian company, Calcitherm Group. On November 13, 1998, DoLime Ltd. ceased operations and the massive lime kiln was demolished.
In 2002, the quarry was purchased by Carson Reid Ltd. and resource extraction resumed under lease to James Dick Construction Ltd. in the fall of 2005.16
Historic Guelph Guelph Limestone Inc. V46P14
Guelph Limestone Inc., 2006.  
(Photo courtesy of the author).
Many building records of homes and other buildings simply indicate that stone was quarried on-site. For the most part, this was easy for rubblestone construction (small to medium random-sized stone pieces), but not so for smooth ashlar block or quarry-faced masonry. Often, large quoins, lintels, sills, and cornices were quarried off-site and transported to the construction project.
Ultimately, the raw material means nothing unless brought to usefulness by strong stone-cutters and then crafted under the hand of a skilled stonemason and/or stone-carver. Thankfully, Guelph had plenty of all three. The Ontario Census (1871), The Directory of the County of Wellington (1871-1872) and the Directory of the Town of Guelph (1875), give a picture of the representation of each trade in the Town of Guelph between 1860 to 1880. Some of the key players in the quarrying industry during its boom were William Kennedy, Matthew Bell, Robert Emslie, David Kennedy (unrelated to William), and Thomas Dobbie.
William Kennedy left his mark on the city's architecture with the construction of Yankee Cottage and Sunnyside (Regent Street and 16 Arthur Street North respectively).
Historic Guelph V46P15
William Kennedy left his mark on the City's architecture with the construction of Sunnyside at 16 Arthur Street North.
(Photo courtesy of the author).
Kennedy honed his masonry skills in Ireland and Scotland, as a builder of lighthouses and piers. His son, David Johnston Kennedy (noted Guelph artist) recalled in his memoirs being pulled from school at the age of 12 to help his father, by hauling gravel by cart to build a lighthouse at Corsewall Point in the North Channel. In 1831, William and son David J., aged 15, traveled to Ireland where they worked hewing large blocks of stone from Wales to build the pier at Donaghadee, Ireland.17
In April 1833, father and son set sail aboard the 'Earl of Aberdeen' to find work in Upper Canada, where stonecutting work was plentiful. Father and son found work in Kingston for a short period, but in 1834, William Kennedy acquired land outside Guelph and tried his hand at farming. The teen David recalled pioneer farming, "So hard that I could not sleep at night many times and for all this no thanks."18 In 1847, William Kennedy was living in Guelph and, "Touted his abilities to carve intricate stone details for gravestones, sundials and other garden ornaments."19 Kennedy built 'Sunnyside' in 1854 for his daughter Jeannie and her husband Charles Davidson. The front portico, ionic capitals, and intricate bas-relief carving, inside and outside, the home demonstrate Kennedy's well-honed talents as an expert stone carver.
Matthew Bell, referred to earlier for his role as a quarry owner, worked extensively as a stonemason and stone-carver, and his craftsmanship is evident in some of Guelph's most beautiful architectural jewels. Born in England in 1820, a sampling of the stonework attributed to Bell includes:
1853: First Bell home at 96-98 Water Street, often referred to as the "House of Heads".
1855: Portico of Moreton Lodge, home of Frederick W. Stone on what is now Johnston Green at the University of Guelph.
1856: Guelph Town Hall Bullock's Head is attributed to Bell
1856: Second Bell home at 49 Albert Street
1860s: 264 Woolwich Street
1872: Third Bell home at 40 Albert Street, featuring bust of Lord Palmerston above front cornice
1872: 22-26 Oxford Street, almost a clone of 264 Woolwich Street
1883: Church of our Lady Immaculate
Historic Guelph V46P16
Detail of Matthew Bell's work at 96-98 Water Street.
(Photo courtesy of the author).
Thomas Dobbie is credited with the masonry and cut stonework on the Central School (1873-1876), once one of Guelph's finest limestone buildings (now demolished).20 The exquisite stonework is lauded in the November 1,1876 report of The Guelph Herald:
"The material used for the walls of the building in Guelph stone, the body of the building being built of broken coursed work, neatly pointed; the corners and openings, also the cornice, frieze course, belt courses and water table finished in cut stone, the cornice to centre building having a handsome corbelled frieze course in cut stone.21
Dobbie and Grierson were also the principal masons for the highly decorative Post Office/Customs House building in 1876.22 One of Dobbie's works still standing today is the residence at 74 Paisley Street, built for W.H. Cutten.
Life as a quarry worker could not have been easy. Dangerous, back-breaking and no glory - recognition always went to the architect and stonemason. Not nearly enough is known about the men - no record of women quarry workers - responsible for extracting the stone from its natural precipice and into the hands of the masons and builders.
The Ontario Census (1871) provides a list of their names and origins - primarily young immigrants from England and Scotland (see Appendix B). Many lived near the quarry sites and built and occupied humble worker's cottages along Bristol, Essex, Waterloo, Water and Albert Streets. The abundance of well-built cottages and homes along these streets is remarkable - there are 25 of them on Waterloo Avenue alone.23
The use of stone began to decline after 1890. By the early 1900s, stone was 'unfashionable.'24 Transportation of brick had become more economically feasible, and the range of colours complemented the highly-decorative Victorian architecture the day.
Local builders began to use artificial stone. Unfortunately, its quality could never equal that of limestone. For example, the use of artificial stone in the construction of the Carnegie Library resulted in its deterioration and ultimately its demolition. The Library Board championed the use of artificial stone for the highly ornamental building. At the time, Board Chair James Watt defended its use: "The artificial stone will give the same effect as if made of natural stone, and at one-quarter the cost."25 This decision proved fateful - and citizens still mourn the loss of this monumental edifice - and the debate about its structural condition remains active. Sadly, the use of cheaper - quality and cost - building materials continue to this day and rarely is Guelph graced with a new stone structure.
The use of 'Guelph limestone' is now primarily limited to repairs on existing buildings. Recently, the extensive rehabilitation of the Sleeman Streetcar Barns on Waterloo Avenue by John Lammer & Sons necessitated the skilled hand of a stonemason. Stone used in the restoration was recovered on-site.
The term 'Guelph limestone' has taken on new meaning in recent years. Today, building-quality limestone with the unique consistency and hue of the locally quarried variety is referred to by suppliers outside of the area as 'Guelph limestone', regardless of origin. Bruce Peninsula Stone Ltd. in Wiarton, Ontario currently markets 'Guelph Limestone', although the stone does not come from this city.
There are no quarries within city limits currently producing building-quality limestone. Outside of the city on Watson Road, south of Stone Road, McKenzie Bros. Ltd. - normally a supplier of crushed aggregate - began quarrying a new vein of large limestone blocks for buildings in 2000. Limestone from this quarry is being used as the exterior finish for a new environmentally-friendly residence at 82 Water Street in Guelph (David MacAuley, architect and Keith Peck, stonemason).
The City of Guelph has also retained an inventory of locally quarried Guelph limestone, notable sills, quoins and lintels at a holding site. The inventory consists of stone salvaged from demolished buildings and structures. The stone is intended for local buildings in need of repair or restoration. Priority for use of the limestone is given to public buildings and owners of designated heritage properties.




Name Occupation Origin/Address Source
Robert Emslie Quarry Owner and Stonemason   1877 Map and DTG 1875
George Pike Stonemason, Guelph Quarries   HOG Johnson DTG 1875 Census 1871
Edwin Humphries Stonemason 170 Waterloo WC Directory
Albert Pike Stonemason   Couling
David Kennedy Quarry Owner Builder


225 Waterloo


DCW 1871-1872

Census 1871

James Quinn Stonemason   WOB
Taylor Bros. Masons   WOB
Matthew Bell Stone-Cutter

Albert Street

Origin: England

DCW 1871-1872

Census 1871

Thomas Dobbie Contract Stonemason Farquar Street

DCW 1871-72

Census 1871

James Emslie  Mason Fleet Street

DCW 1871-1872

F. J. Chubb

Mason/contractor Wellington Hotel GAC- Downtown Walkabout
Dobbie & Grierson Quarry

Quarry Owner

DTG 1882

Taylor & Emslie Quarry

Quarry Owner DTG 1882

Mr. Freeman

Stonemason Norfolk Church Johnson, p. 228
Pikes Quarry DTG 1882

Walter Grierson

Stonemason Cutten-Kelly Block DTG 1882

Alexander Stewart

Stonemason Scotland 1871 Census

John Griffith

Stonemason England 1871 Census

William Hump(h)ries

Stonemason England 1871 Census

Owen Bready

Stonemason Ireland 1871 Census

Daniel Carter

Stonemason Scotland 1871 Census

William B. Shaw

Stonemason England 1871 Census

George Welshford

Stonemason England 1871 Census

James Davidson

Stonemason Scotland 1871 Census

James Cowie

Stonemason Scotland 1871 Census





Name Occupation Origin/Address Source

T. McCoy

Quarrymen 218 Waterloo built 1865-1872 Couling

George H. Welsford

Stone-Cutter 162 Waterloo built 1863 Couling
James McAstocker Stone-Cutter 321 Waterloo built 1873-1883 Couling
Simon Smith Stone-Cutter Germany  1871 Census
John Anlon Stone-Cutter Quebec  1871 Census
John Jones Stone-Cutter England  1871 Census
John Gore Stone-Cutter    1871 Census
Robert Leader   Stone-Cutter England  1871 Census
Adam Ledgerwood Stone-Cutter Scotland  1871 Census
Walter Grierson Stone-Cutter Scotland  1871 Census

Robert Emslie

Stone-Cutter Scotland  1871 Census
John Pattison Stone-Cutter Scotland  1871 Census
John Gilpin Stone-Cutter England  1871 Census
James Weir Stone-Cutter Scotland  1871 Census
Edmond Jolly Stone-Cutter Scotland  1871 Census
John Brown Stone-Cutter Scotland  1871 Census
Henry Castle Stone-Cutter England  1871 Census
John Pace Stone-Cutter Canada  1871 Census




HOG: Leo Johnson, History of Guelph
DTG: Directory of the Town of Guelph
Couling: Couling Building Inventory (Guelph, Ontario), 1827-1927
WC: Wellington County Directory
DCW: Directory of the County of Wellington
GAC: Guelph Arts Council
WDB: Waterworks Designation By-law




  1. Grand River Conservation Authority. "Natural History of the Grand River Watershed." June 1999. Available at abotfi shed.cfm?documentid=109. [Accessed 5 June 2007].
  2. Ibid.
  3. Henry P. L .S. Strange, "Map of Park Lots Laid Out in Ballinard in the Township of Guelph in the County of Wellington for John C. Chadwick, Esq.", circa 1855. (Toronto Maclean, 1856).
  4. Don Barr, Plant Manager, Guelph Limestone Ltd., interview with author, January 2006.
  5. Leo A. Johnson, History of the City of Guelph, 1827-1927. (Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Historical Society, 1977), p. 27.
  6. Leone A. Hinds, Pioneer Inns and Taverns of Guelph, (Cheltenham, Ontario: Boston Mills Press, 1977), p. 10.
  7. C. Acton Burrows, The Annals of the Town of Guelph, (Guelph, Ontario: Herald Steam Printing House,1877), p. 94.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Ibid, p. 113.
  10. "Centennial Edition," The Guelph Evening Mercury and Advertiser, July 20, 1927.
  11. Notation on Slide 8762, Wellington County Museum and Archives.
  12. City of Guelph, "Manor Park: Statement of Reasons for Designation," By-Law (2004-17377).
  13. Florence Partridge, Brooklyn and the College Hill. (Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Arts Council, 1998).
  14. Florence Partridge, Altar and Hearth in Victorian Guelph. (Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Arts Council, 1994), p. 4.
  15. "Centennial Edition", The Guelph Evening Mercury and Advertiser, July 20, 1927, p. 81.
  16. Taken from Guelph Limestone Ltd. Company records and personal interview with Plant Manager, Mr. Don Barr.
  17. Edgar P. Richardson, American Heritage, December 1971: Vol. 23, Issue 1.
  18. lbid.
  19. Lesley Hayward, "Historic Guelph Limestone: Preserving a Legacy." [Unpublished, 2005], p. 14.
  20. Central School was demolished in 1966.
  21. Ruth Pollard, "Guelph's Building Boom of 1875-1876," Historic Guelph: The Royal City, XX, (April 1981).
  22. The Post Office/Customs Building was demolished in 1960.
  23. Antoin Diamond, "The Evolving Streetscape of Waterloo Avenue," Historic Guelph: The Royal City, XLIVI, (2004): p. 16.
  24. Gilbert A. Stelter, "The Architect and the Community: W. Frye Colwill and Turn of the Century Guelph," Historic Guelph: The Royal City, XXXIII, (1994): p. 19.
  25. Ibid, p. 19.



Burrows, C. Acton. The Annals of the Town of Guelph. Guelph, Ontario: Herald Steam Printing House, 1877.

Couling, Gordon. Downtown Walkabout - A Walking Tour of the Central Business District of Guelph. Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Arts Council, 1996.

Diamond, Antoin. "The Evolving Streetscape of Waterloo Avenue," Historic Guelph: The Royal City, XLIII, Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Historical Society, 2004.

Grand River Conservation Authority. "Natural History of the Grand River Watershed." June 1999. Available at: [Accessed 5 June 2007].

Hayward, Lesley. "Historic Guelph Limestone: Preserving a Legacy." Unpublished, 2005.

Hinds, Leone A. Pioneer Inns and Taverns of Guelph. Cheltenham, Ontario: The Boston Mills Press, 1977.

Johnson, Leo A. History of Guelph 1827-1927. Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Historical Society, 1977.

Matheson, Dawn and Rosemary Anderson, eds. Guelph: Perspectives on a Century of Change, 1900-2000. Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Historical Society, 2000.

Partridge, Florence. Brooklyn and the College Hill. Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Arts Council, 1998.

Partridge, Florence. Alter and Hearth in Victorian Guelph. Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Arts Council, 1994.

Pollard, Ruth and Eber Pollard. "Guelph's Building Boom: 1875-1876," Historic Guelph: The Royal City," XX, Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Historical Society, 1981.

Richardson, Edgar P., American Heritage, December 1971, Volume 23, Issue 1.

Stelter, Gilbert A. "The Architect and the Community: W. Frye Colwill and Turn of the Century Guelph," Historic Guelph: The Royal City, XXXIIl, Guelph, Ontario: Guelph Historical Society, 1994.