Author: Kevin Woodger & Dr. Elizabeth A. Stone

Publication Date: 2012

 

The Ontario Veterinary College (OVC), the oldest veterinary school in Canada and the United States, opened its doors in Guelph for the first time in the fall of 1922, According to Dr. C.D. McGilvray, the OVC principal at the time of the move' the proposed reltcation from Toronto to Guelph was met with "weeping and gnashing of teeth."1 Rumour quickly spread "that the student body would leave the institution and the faculty would be broken up sooner than make the change."2 However, by the time of the official opening of the "New College" on 12 December 1922, the principal happlly repotted "such a catastrophe had not occurred."3 in fact McGilvray was able to announce that, "the sails were all set and in spite of any obstacles that were in the path, everything was now going ahead at full speed."4

The College traces its origins to 150 years ago, when in 1862 Andrew Smith, a new graduate of the Edinburgh Veterinary College, was recruited by the Ontario Board of Agriculture. He began giving lectures on veterinary medicine in Toronto and soon received a charter to open the privately-owned Upper Canada Veterinary College. It became the Ontario Veterinary College (OVC) in 1869 and affiliated with the University of Toronto in 1897 and a decade later, in 1908, was purchased from Smith by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture. The College's arrival in Guelph in 1922 sparked a new era in veterinary medical education in Ontario. The Ministry of Agriculture specifically chose Guelph as the new location for the College because of the perceived benefits the "Royal City" could offer the college. In this essay, the history of the OVC will be traced over its first ten years in Guelph, 1922-1932. The factors behind the College's move to Guelph as well as the official opening of the new College will be discussed. Finally, the changes the College under went from 1922 to 1932 will be examined, paying special attention to the changes in curriculum and student life and the growth of clinical and research work, as well as the creation of a public extension service.

The Move to Guelph and the Opening of the "New College"

The Ministry of Agriculture's decision to move the Ontario Veteri- nary College to Guelph was not made lightly, In fact, the Ministry had been contemplating the relocation of the College since it first assumed responsibility for the OVC in 1908.5 Nonetheless, in 1915 the Ministry chose to alleviate the shortage of space in the original Temperance Street building by constructing a new building on University Avenue in Toronto.

However, those with a stake in veterinary education became increasingly vocal about the declining suitability of Toronto as the home of Canada's only English-speaking veterinary school. Interestingly, space and room for future expansion were not cited as reasons for relocation of the College. In his address at the opening ceremony of the new college in Guelph" the Honourable Manning Doherty, Minister of Agriculture, noted, "the building in Toronto answered the purposes fully and very well. Therefore this could not be put forward as a reason of moving to this city [Guelph]."6 According to the Minister, "the real reason' for the move was that he "felt the Dominion was not exercising the full influence it could in building up the livestock of the country."7 Coincidental with this increased focus on livestock was a decline in the use of horses for transportation and farming operations. Even though as early as 1869, Andrew Smith had commented on the importance of livestock in Canada and the need for veterinarians to act in this field, the focus of his school was on horses.8

Addressing the shift away from horses at OVC's 1919 graduation ceremony, Railway Commissioner Dr. John G. Rutherford, an OVC Class of 1879 graduate and former Veterinary Director General of Canada (1902-1912), noted that "the advent of the motor car and truck had worked almost a revolution in the work of the veterinary [sic]. Some varieties of horses had already almost disappeared. In

the city the light horse was a thing of the past and was fast becoming so in the country."9 He criticized the lack of training that veterinarians received, pointing out that "veterinaries [sic] failed in many cases to familiarize themselves with breeding and the general care of farm stock."10 The solution, according to Rutherford, could be found in Europe. Noting that "there was nothing more essential for success... than thorough knowledge of this phase [the care of livestock]," he argued that the European example of relocating veterinary schools "from the cities to the rural districts" allowed a closer connection to livestock and better facilitated the teaching of animal husbandry.11

Historic Guelph Aerial photo of OVC V51P35

Aerial photo of OVC, 1922-1940  Photo courtesy of CAV Barker Collection, Archival Collections, University of Guelph Library

The Ministry of Agriculture appears to have agreed with Dr. Rutherford's solution. In its calendar for the 1922-1923 academic year, the ontario veterinary college provided prospective students with details as to why the College relocated to Guelph. According to the College (and by extension the Ministry), urban growth after the Great War led to an increased demand for "food-producing animals," and thus a need for veterinarians to specialize in service to the livestock industry. This service entailed "conserving the health of animals, controlling disease, safeguarding public health against unwholesome food supplies, and the maintenance of a sanitary service,"'12 particularly in support of livestock exports. It was believed that Guelph, as a rural community, would provide a "closer contact with agriculture and the animal industry."13

According to Minister Doherty, it was also believed that the "close proximity of the OAC [Ontario Agricultural College] will give the students another angle of what is expected of them after they leave this college [OVC1."14 Principal McGilvray noted that by "joining forces with the OAC... [the OVC] would be able to accomplish a greater work." The Ontario Agricultural College, which was also run by the Ministry of Agriculture, agreed with this assessment. At the opening of the OVC in Guelph, the OAC representative, Professor R. Flarcourt, told the audience that "while our work has to do with plants and animals, the veterinarian looks after the health of the stock... the two things should be closely associated in the line of research... much better success could be obtained by studying the subjects in an united way than by separate effort."15

The people of Guelph, or at least their elected officials, praised the Ministry of Agriculture for its decision to move the OVC to Guelph. Guelph's Member of the Provincial Parliament, the Reverend C.H. Buckland, claimed the "people fully recognized that Mr. Doherty had done a great thing in bringing the institution to Guelph."16 Playing to the press (which included tlne Guelph Mercury, the major paper of his constituency), he reinforced the prevailing logic behind the move to Guelph and concluded that the Minister "... had the interests of the farmer atheart."17

The official opening of the OVC's new home in Guelph was itself a rather lavish affair. Speaking to the significance of the event, coverage of the ceremony took up three pages tn the Guelph Mercury tlne following day. The festivities began in the afternoon of 12 December 1922. A little over 200 people packed into the auditorium of the new main building to take part in the ceremony officiated by Minister of Agriculture, Manning Doherty. In his opening address, Min- ister Doherty eloquently extolled the virtues of the modem new building, while reminding his audience that "the greatness of the Ontario Veterinary College depends not only on the facilities... but rather on the effectiveness and efficiency of the student body and the staff."18 He concluded that "any educational institution that depends on its buildings and equipment is sure to fall short of ob- taining the real object."19

Historic Guelph V51P37 Aerial photo of OVC, curcent  Photo courtesy of CAV Barker Collection, Archival Collections, University of Guelph Library

For his part, Dr. Rutherford praised the move to Guelplu arguing that "after all Agriculture is the basic industry of this Dominion."2o In his opinior¡ "there was no sound agriculture without live stock [sic]; no good live stock without well informed live stock men, and no live stock at all unless there were well trained and conscientious veterinarians."21 Flowever, Rutherford, who never seemed to.miss the opportunity to criticize, informed the audience that when it came to livestock, he was "sorry to say that the veterinarian has never come into his own in that regard."22 Thankfully for the morale of the audience, Principal McGilvray, Reverend Buckland, and Professor Flarcourt, struck more positive notes in their speeches.23

After the ceremony, the dignitaries as well as the entire OVC student body proceeded to the Royal Canadian Café for an evening of food, music, and more speeches. During the dinner, the banqueters were treated to music played by an orchestra of OVC and OAC students. The toast to King George V was followed by an OVC student quartet and a toast to the City of Guelph. Mayor Howard then extended his welcome to the OVC. He extolled the virtues of his city in which the new College staff and students could share. These included the low taxes, the "successful manner in which the affairs of the city were conducted," and the Ontario Provincial Winter Fair. After more toasts and speeches, the whole affair ended with the "singing of the national anthem."24

The Growth of the Ontario Veterinary College, 1922-1932

Newspaper advertisements in the Toronto Globe for tlne 1922-1923 academic year, the first year of OVC classes in Guelph, informed readers that if they "desire to enter into a professiory" they should "consider what the new field of Veterinary Science has to offer."25 The advertisements proved prophetic. Within ten years of opening its doors in Guelptu the Ontario Veterinary College had expanded the curriculum to include courses designed around the professional care and management of livestock. Furthermore, faculty were engaged in a wide array of clinical work, research projects and public extensions services.

However, before examining these developments, it would be beneficial to briefly examine OVC student life in Guelph in order to better contextualize the "New College." When the OVC first opened in Guelph in 1922, there were 82 students enrolled in a fouryear program. Student numbers fluctuated during the period of 1922 to 1932, decreasing in some years and increasing in others, however, by 1932 the enrollment was 134 students.26 (Currently in the fall of 2012, the enrollment is 464).

Throughout the entire 1922 to 1932 period, students paid $85.00 per year in tuition fees. At the start of the 1922-1923 sessions, students also had to pay a $3.00 Students' Administrative Council Fee, which entitled them to copies of the University of Toronto's student newspaper, the Varsity, as well as a copy oÍ the Torontonensis yearbook upon graduation. That fee was raised to $10.00 at the start of the 1923-1924 session and also included membership in the Athletic Association with field, gym, and swimming pool privileges. Fourth year students wishing to graduate had to pay an additional $10.00 to take their exams and receive their degree.27 Although limited in number, graduate students at OVC paid $20.00 per year in tuition fees, a $5.00 annual registration fee, as well as a $10.00 fee for examinations, and a $10.00 fee to receive their degree.28

Historic Guelph OVC Fornt Door V51P39OVC Front door Photo courtesy of CAV Barker Collection, Archival Collections, University of Guelph Library

However, these were not the only expenses for OVC students; they still needed a place to live while studying in Guelph. When the College first moved to Guelptr, students were told that they "do not board or room in the College," arrd were therefore required to find their own housing within the city of Guelph.29 The College's calendar informed students that "board and room may be procured for $7.00 per week and upwards depending on the class of accommo- dation desired."30 Luckily, they were not left entirely to their oi¡¡n devices to find lodgings as the student YMCA provided a list of "suitable accommodation at reasonable prices."31 Throughout the entire 1922 to 1932 period, off-campus living would be the only option for the majority of students. While the YMCA's list of accommodations has not survived, some insights as to students' living arrangements can be gained from the experience of E. Barrie Carpenter (Class of 1928), OVC's first female graduate. According to a former classmate, Carpenter "took quarters in a local hotel. Member[s] of the student body used to visit her there."32

Historic Guelph OVC Building 1941 V51P40

OVC Building 1941. Photo courtesy of CAV Barker Collection, Archival Collections, University of Guelph Library

Starting in the 1923-1924 academic year, the Ontario Agricultural College offered a limited amount of space in its residence for first- year OVC students. Students living in the OAC residence had. to pay $5.50 per week (raised to $6.50 n 1932) in room and board, payable in advance every four weeks.33 They were also charged twenty-five cents per session to use the telephone (raised to fifty cents in 1927) and had to make "a contingency deposit of $5.00 to guard against damage of furnishings."34 OAC residents during the period were provided with "ordinary furniture" including a bed, mattress, and two blankets. They were also able to have their sheets, pillow covers and towels "washed free of charge."35

To amuse themselves when not studying, OVC students had a variety of activities at their disposal. Although little details as to students' off-campus interests appear to have survived, there is plenty of information on students' on-campus leisure pursuits. Many joined clubs such as the Science Association and the Junior American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), and a significant number of students joined the Delta Chapter of the Omega Tau Sigma professional veterinary fraternity. Others focused on athletics, joining the hockey, baseball and basketball teams, while many, including some faculty, attended the wide variety of dances on campus.36 Every October, the OAC and OVC had a joint Sports Day, which Professor W.l.R. Fowler typically referred to as a "holiday" in his diaries each year.37 However, not every day could be a holiday and students would have spent much of their time working through the College's demanding curriculum.

Historic Guelph Mural in McNabb room V51P41

As was noted above, the OVC was moved to Guelph in order to forge closer links with the agricultural industry and better teach students about the needs of livestock. A close comparison of the College's course calendars from 1922-1932 with those from 1919-1921 demonstrates that the OVC put this newfound proximity to good use during its first decade in Guelph. The comparison is limited to the years 1919-1921, as 1919-1920 was the first academic session to offer the four-year program.38 The four-year Bachelor of Veterinary Science did not change until the introduction of the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Degree in 1946 and the addition of a fifth year of study in the early 1950s.

The beginning of more course offerings, focused on the needs of agriculture and livestock, began while the College was in Toronto. However, these courses were delivered primarily through lectures and dealt mainly with memorizing lists of animal breeds and their characteristics and learning the theory behind such things as breeding and feeding.39 By contrast, once in Guelph the animal husbandry courses, taught by professors from the neighbouring OAC, became both more hands-on and broader in scope. Although the students still had to learn the same theory as their Toronto predecessors, they were now able to work with live examples of the nurnerous breeds of horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs about which they were learning, courtesy of the OAC. The Guelph veterinary students were also able to learn the principles of livestock markets, and were given more in depth lectures on breeding practices.40

Milk hygiene courses also expanded once the OVC was in Guelph. Originally taught as an offshoot of meat inspection courses in Toronto, by the 1932-1933 academic year milk hygiene was a required course in both the second and fourth year of the veterinaty program. The second year students received introductory lectures on the topic while the fourth year students carried out extensive laboratory work in addition to lectures.41 Furthermore, in a course addition that perhaps best demonstrates the OVC's increasing focus on agriculture, poultry diseases classes were added to the fourth year in 1925, followed by a separate poultry husbandry course for second year students starting in 1932.42

Historic Guelph Modern Students V51P43

Modern OVC students learning small animal care  Photo courtesy of CAV Barker Collection, Archival Collections, University of Guelph Library

These new courses, as well as the improvements to the existing ones, contributed to the increased competency of OVC graduates in the livestock field. This competency was furthered by the leadingedge clinical facilities at the new College. Clinical work was rather limited while the College was in Toronto and OVC faculty recognized that this deficiency had to be rectified in Guelph. As such, a free-standing "Veterinary Hospital" was built behind the Main Building. The two-storey facility was designed to hold approximately 40 animals, divided into sections for horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, with a section for small animals on the second floor.43 The diary of Professor W.J.R. Fowler (who taught surgery) provides me insights into the workload of the clinical faculty working in the hospital. For example, on 9 January 1923 Professor Fowler not- ed in his diary that he "had a heavy clinic at [the] College," with five operations in the afternoon alone.44

In his annual report to the Minister of Agriculture for 1923, Principal McGilvray wrote, "the location of Guelph affords alarger variety of cases for treatment and presents a better opportunity to study diseases of farm animals."45 Local livestock raisers quickly took advantage of the new hospital with 727 patient visits during 1924 and 888 the following year. Farm animals were by lar the most numerous patients. The 1925 census was 132 horses, 418 cattle, and 111 swine, compared to 156 dogs, and 38 cats.46

The Clinical Department faculty used many of the patients evaluat- ed in the veterinary hospital for teaching purposes because they would provide "students a good opportunity to become acquainted with disease conditions as they appear in animals, and the methods of care and treatment."47 These cases included instances of eczema in a cow, rheumatism in a pig, and tetanus in a lamb. While maintaining a teaching focus on livestock, a selection of small animal cases were also used for teaching purposes, such as a yellow Persian cat suffering from hairballs in 1926.48

Advancements in academic and clinical work wete, unfortunately, tempered by the struggles faced by the College's researchers. Although the amount and diversity of research conducted at OVC increased after the move to Guelph, progress was hampered due to the relatively small but extremely busy faculty. The move to Guelph was made without seven of the OVC's faculty (not including University of Toronto professors who taught more general subjects). Several of these faculty members do not appear to have been replaced when the College opened in October of 1922. Faculty who did not make the move included Professor D. King Smith who taught pathology, and Professor E.A. McCulloch who taught para- sitology. In Guelph, these subjects were taught by Dr. F.W. Schofield.49 Thus, in 1922 tlne OVC teaching staff numbered elevery assisted by twelve OAC faculty members.50 A decade later, the faculty still only numbered thirteen along with eleven OAC faculty.51

Historic Guelph Exam on a Dog V51P45

Dr. James Archibald, C, Morrison, and Betty Weiler examining a dog at OVC. Photo courtesy of CAV Barker Collection, Archival Collections, University of Guelph Library

Of these, only six faculty members were consistently able to undertake major research projects during the period of 1922 to 7932, including Professors Mclntosh, H.E. Batt, Ronald Gwatkin, F.W. Schofield, A.A. Kingscote, and J.S. Glover. Each had to balance multiple research projects while simultaneously carrying out their teaching responsibilities. 52

In 1922, faculty were typically paid between $2,000-$2,500 per year, depending on seniority and position. However, all faculty members received various raises and by 1932, the most senior faculty members, such as H.E. Batt, R.A. Mclntosh, and F.W. Schofield, earned an average of $3,000 per year. Principal McGilvray was the highest paid faculty member, earning $5,400 per year by 1932.53 While the College offered graduate degrees (both the Doctor of Veterinary Science and the Master of Veterinary Science), few graduate students were enrolled during the first decade in Guelph.54

In his 1924 annual report, Principal McGilvray lamented that "the need for research and investigational work is generally realized, but the number of persons inclined and qualified for the purposes are relativel! few."55 Howevet, the Principal was able to report that several of the College's departments had combined their resources to carry out research on poultry diseases, which was in the forefront of such research. McGilvray noted that"a certain amount of difficulty is met with owing to the fact that the study of poultry diseases is comparatively new. There exists no great amount of scientific literature on this subject."56

In 1926, College faculty carried out research on sterility in cattle, Ontario's black fox industry and experimented with the disinfection of eggs and incubators.57 A year later, McGilvray was able to report that "a considerable amount of research and investigational work" had been undertaken, with researchers conducting "as much special research and investigational work as their time, opportunity and facilities will permit."58 However, he was forced to admit that "should the routine work continue to increase it will not be possible to further expand researches and special investigational work unless more help and additional facilities are available."59 In what seems like both a chastisement and a plea for assistance, Dr. McGilvray informed the Minister of Agriculture that "it is not sufficiently realized in many cases when demands are made for investigations into animal diseases that researches properly conducted and carried to completion involve a greater amount of time, more special detail and greater facilities than a small teaching staff has at its disposal."60

However, by 1931 the situation had improved considerably. McGilvray was able to inform his ministerial overseers that "considerable time and attention was devoted to the prevalence of nutritional diseases affecting animals in certain localities."61 Furthermore, OVC researchers partnered with their OAC counterparts to examine over 1,500 cattle on 60 different farms in western and eastern ontario in order to determine the incidence and distribution of osteomalacia in cattle. OVC researchers also worked with the Ontario Research Foundation to conduct experiments using calves to determine the "local variations in the habits of warble flies."62 This is just a small sample of the research projects undertaken in 1931.63 Through the dedication of its handful of researchers and strategic partnerships with the government and the OAC, the OVC was able to overcome its difficulties in carrying out scientific and medical research, and would soon become a leader in veterinary medical research.

The final major development during the OVC's first ten years in Guelph was the creation of a public extension service. This service allowed independent veterinarians and animal owners to "send specimens to the college for laboratory examination."64 OVC faculty would examine the specimens, after which "a detailed report is sent to the one concerned."65 By 1925, the College was able to report that "this service is being freely availed of and a marked increase is noticeable in the number of specimens being received for examination", particularly for pullorum disease (Søtmonella pullorum) in chickens.66 As part of this service, the OVC produced vari- ous vaccines for distribution; for example, in 1926 the College provided veterinarians with 15,000 doses of a vaccine designed to prevent B. øbortus infection in cattle.67

In his 1931 annual report, Principal McGilvray boasted that the public extension service "immediately and effectively, provides for livestock owners throughout the Province the benefit of highly trained clinical and laboratory assistance for the scientific diagnosis, control and prevention of disease."68 That year, the extension service received 2,679 specimens for laboratory examination. In addition, McGilvray specifically highlighted the fact that the College had received 21,333 poultry blood samples for pullorum disease and 6,717 cattle blood samples for the B. abortus infection.69 Thus, after ten years in Guelph, the Ontario Veterinary College was operating an extensive and flourishing public extension service to the livestock industry.

Conclusion

At the end of OVC's first academic year in Guelph, Principal McGilvray informed the Minister of Agriculture that, "the transfer of the college to Guelph has provided facilities more adaptable to the requirements of the course in veterinary science."70 The next nine years demonstrated the truth of that statement. The OVC had strengthened its courses in livestock related subjects such as animal husbandry with the help of the neighbouring OAC. Furthermore, the relocation to rural Guelph provided an increase in clinical livestock patients in the OVC's new purpose-built Veterinary Hospital. Finally, although its research efforts were constrained by the small number of faculty, the OVC implemented a highly successful public extension service that aided veterinarians and livestock owners both locally and across the whole of Ontario. The accomplishments of the Ontario Veterinary College during its first ten years in Guelph set the tone for future decades of expansion and innovation.

 

ENDNOTES

  1. "Guelph's Fine New Veterinary College is Officially Opened," Guelph Eoening Mercury, 13 December 1922.
  2. Ibid.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid.
  5. "The Veterinary College," Toronto Globe,'1,0 October 1908.
  6. Guelph's Fine New Veterinary College is Officially Opened," Guelph Eaening Mercury,13 December 1922.
  7. Ibid.
  8. J. Brian Derbyshire, An lntroduction to Canadian Veterinary History. (Guelph, Ont.: University of Guelph, 2000) 28; "Ontaio Veterinary Col- lege" Toronto Globe 31 March 1869.
  9. "Closing Day at the OVC," Toronto Globe, Apt1I30 1919.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid.
  12. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1,922-1923.P.FJ OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  13. lbid.
  14. Guelph's Fine New Veterinary College is Officially Opened," Guelph Eo ening Mer cury, 13 December 1,922.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ibid.
  17. lbid.
  18. lbid.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Ibid.
  23. Ibid.
  24. ]bid.
  25. "Opporfunities in the Veterinary Profession" Toronto Globe, 19 June 1922. '
  26. Annual Reports of the Ontario Veterinary College, 1923-1932. REi OVC A0009, University of Guelph A rch "Speci i val a nd a l-Col lecti ons, Cueìph, Ontario, Canada.
  27. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Sessions 1922-1923 and 1923-1924. REl OVC A0024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  28. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1930-1931. RE1 OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  29. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1922-1923.F{E1 OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  30. lbid.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Letter Dr. P.j.G Plummer to Dr. C.A.V Barker, December 19th, 1991. REl OVC A0292, Box 1 File 3. University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  33. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1923-1924, and, 1932-33 RE1 OVC A0024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  34. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary Coilege, Session 1925-\926, 1927- 1928. RE1 OVC A0024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  35. lbid.
  36. Torontonensis Yearbooks,1924,1926 and1929. RE1 OVC 40058, Boxes S and 6. University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections; Diary of Dr. Fowler, October 31, 1924 and january 17, 1930. RE1 OVC A0032, RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  37. Diary of Dr. Fowler, October 76, 1924 and October 7, L926. RE1 OVC 10032, RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  38. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1919-1920. RE1 OVC A0024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  39. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1920-192l.REl OVC A0024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  40. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1925-1.926.R8,1 OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  41. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1919-1,920.RF,l OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections; The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1932-L933.RF1, OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  42. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1925-1,926.P.81 OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections; The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1932-1933. RE1 OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  43. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1922-1923.P*EI OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  44. Diary of Dr. Fowler, Tuesday |anuary 9,1923. RE1 OVC 40032, RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  45. Annual Report of the Ontario Veterinary College Íor 1923. REl OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  46. Arìnual Reports of the Ontario Veterinary College for 1924 and 1925. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  47. Annual Report of the Ontario Veterinary College for 1.925. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  48. Annual Report of the Ontario Veterinary College for 1926. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  49. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Sessions 1921-1922 utd 1922-1923. RE1 OVC A0024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  50. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session 1922-L923.RBI OVC 40024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  51. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Session l93l-1gg2.REI ovc 40024, Box 1, university of Guetph Archival and special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  52. ArÌnual Reports of the Ontario Veterinary College, 1924-1950. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  53. OVC Ledgers. RE1 OVC A0202,Volume 2, 1920-L945. Universiry of Guelph Archival and Special Collections.
  54. The Calendar of the Ontario Veterinary College, Sessions I922-I92g - 1932-1933. RE1 OVC A0024, Box 1, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  55. Annual Report of the Ontario Veterinary College for 1.924. RE1 OVC 40009, university of Guelph Archival and special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  56. lbid.
  57. 57 Annual Report of the Ontario Veterinary College for 1926. REl OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  58. fu'¡nq¿l Report of the Ontario Veterinary College for 1927. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  59. lbid.
  60. lbid.
  61. Annual Report of the Ontario Veterinary College Íor 1931,. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid.
  64. Arìnual Report of the Ontario Veterinary College for 1925. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  65. Ibid.
  66. Ibid.
  67. Arrnual Report of the Ontario Veterinary Coilege for 1926. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  68. Annual Report of the Ontario Veterinary College for 193'J.. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  69. lbid.
  70. Annual Report of the Ontario Veterinary College Íor 192j. RE1 OVC 40009, University of Guelph Archival and Special Collections, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.