Author: Antoin Diamond

Publicaion Date: 2004

 

Historic Guelph V43P13Waterloo Avenue facing west from Gordon Street after the street railway was plied (1895).  Source: Guelph Museum Archives, 2003

 

The built landscape is the physical manifestation of the needs, values and cultural traditions of those who create it. It is formed brick by brick, layer by layer through a combination of individual choices and collective decisions. The streetscape is a microcosm of the built land- scape that reveals elements of culture that unconsciously impact the local experience. In turn, this can influence crime rates, pollution, and overall health of a city's residents. Culturally interesting streets encour- age greater pedestrian use which irhibits criminal activity that seeks to take advantage of uninhabited areas. Streets also have the potential to unify a city, making people feel more connected and willing to con- tribute to improvements requiring citizen cooperation. Indeed, people who walk tend to make use of local transit more often which" in turn, reduces pollution from car emissions.

What may not be so evident, however, is how culturally-inviting streetscapes are formed in the first place. They do not appear overnight from the municipal planning office or from the genius of one mind; rather they are formed over time through forces both planned and individual from within and beyond the city's boundary. The study of the evolving streetscape of Waterloo Avenue from Gordon Street to the Hanlon Expressway, from 1827 to the present day, is appealing because just as the built environment of Guelph provides a reflection of a grow- ing province, this streetscape exhibits layers of life that mirror the evolving town.

 

Historical Beginnings

After surveying the town site during the year 1827, one of the most important decisions John Galt made was to build Market Street, now known as Waterloo Avenue. Contracted to Mr. Absolom Shade, it con- sisted of nothing more than a large opening through an old-growth forest, but upon completion spanned an impressive one hundred and thir- ty two feet and extended seven miles west to the county of Waterloo. The building of this road provided access to farm land for settlement and a trade route to other more established markets. It also acted as a form of boosterism for Guelph by attracting people from miles around, with some saying that it rivaled Niagara Falls as a tourist attraction.

As part of southern Ontario's well-established settlement system, Guelph was organized around a central place, the market square. Market St. used to extend west from this point, ending at Edinburgh Rd., which formed the boundary of the original "Town Plot". From there it linked to what was then known as the Waterloo Rd., which crossed the western-most boundary of the town-site at Silvercreek Rd. By 1876 the entire length of this road which ran from Gordon St. to the town limit at Silvercreek Rd. was renamed Waterloo Avenue. Figure 1 provides an illustration of this delineated area.

Historic Guelph V43P14Source: Map base from Johnson 1977, 15 Map 3 Plan of the Town of Guelph, 1827

 

Early Settlement

By 1833, the Canada Company had managed to sell 60 percent of the 975 townlots in Guelph and 83 percent of the township lots, but development was slow to come. An historical account that provides some visual context of this is when, at that time, a certain Mr. Phin came up the Waterloo Road to Guelph, where there were only one or two solitary houses built. So sparse was settlement that when Mr. Phin asked his driver when they would reach Guelph, he was told that they had already arrived. Flowever, this arterial route would provide the neces- sary connection for the exchange of goods and services vital for Guelph's economic growth. Road maintenance during the early 1800s was an ongoing affair with most of it being supervised by Pathmasters, who used Statute Labour (about two days per man per year) to carry it out. Due to demands of settlement and farming, there was never suffi- cient labour available and roads quickly fell into disrepair. The effort and expense of providing passable transportation routes for merchants was contributing to economic hardships in Guelph, and so a decision was made in 1838 to persuade the provincial government to take over Waterloo Rd. as a public work, and improvement began quickly.

Subdivision of the land along Waterloo Avenue had begun in 1827 and progressed from the centre in a westerly fashion, but development was primarily influenced by the natural environment. Bounded on the east and south by the loop of the Speed River, construction began during the mid 1840s on the relatively level land as far west as Yorkshire Street. Number one Waterloo Avenue, a two-storey brick house built in 1844 on the north side, is the oldest standing structure on the street. This house features red sand struck brick, 6 / 6 sash and a pilastered door case with bold entablature, to mention a few of its characteristics. Of course, construction of homes such as this was rare during that period, requiring expensive brick that had to be imported, and also bricklaying skills. As a result many settlers initially took advantage of the more readily available raw materials such as timber and later, stone.

 

Construction Materials

The abundance of timber provided for the simplest and most utilitarian of all structures at that time, the frame house. They were easily constructed and less expensive to build, and several can be found on Waterloo Avenue (examples being at Nos. 9, 15, 16, 110 and 236). The oldest of these homes date back to the 1850s and have since been wrapped in veneers that range from stucco to aluminum clapboard. Veneering was a common way of improving Ontario buildings through small steps, and an example can be seen at No. 16 where stucco has been used, and more recently a decorative stone face has been added to the front of this building. Of course 'improvement' often mirrored only what was available in the way of building materials and skills at that particular time. As other materials and skills became accessible, Ontarians' predilection for stone and brick quickly ushered in structures that contribute to one of the most recognizable traits of Ontario's architectural legacy - the stone house.

There are twenty-five stone structures on Waterloo Avenue that have been built from quarried Lockport Dolomite. Evidence of quarrying can be found on the north side of Waterloo Avenue between Edinburgh and Meadowvale behind numbers 193 to 239, and further down the street, just east and west of the Hanlon, encompassing land that has been commonly referred to as the gravel pit, and on land currently owned by Guelph Dolime. Mr. William Slater is listed in the 1893 Farmers Business Directory as being the owner of one of these quarries and many tradesmen occupied homes nearby on Waterloo Avenue. Mr. George H. Welsford, a stone cutter, lived not too far away at No. 162. Mr. Welsford's property was built in 1863 out of limestone and features tooled sills, bush-hammered lintels and quoins, a stained glass transom, and shutters. A stonemason by the name of Edwin Humphries originally lived at No. 170 in a limestone, hammer-dressed stone cottage, and a Mr. T. McCoy, a quarryman, lived at No. 218, in an 1865 Ontario Cottage, an image of which can be seen below.

Historic Guelph V43P16218 Wnterloo Aaenue Neo-Clsssic Vernacular (1865) 1-storey cottage Source: lnuentory of Heritage Structures, '1997

 

Of course use for Waterloo Avenue's dolomite was not limited to structures on this street. In the mid to late 1920s, tradesmen cut stone from the quarry just east of the Hanlon to be used for the spires of The Church of Our Lady Immaculate, one of the most commanding structures in Cuelph today.

A demographic shift between 1843 and 1847, which doubled the population of Guelph from 700 to 1,480, brought with it skilled stonemasons and bricklayers, increasing the former from 15 to 21 and the latter from 7 to 73, some of whom lived on Waterloo Avenue at that time. Seventy-six brick homes exist on Waterloo Avenue, seventeen of which are known to have been built before the turn of the century. Bricks, made from an abundance of clay materials deposited by the Wisconsin glacier, were made by individual brick-makers who advertised the sale of them in the local paper. Mr. David McKersie, who owned and operat- ed his business on Waterloo Road, placed the following advertisement.

There were many other skilled individuals who made their homes on Waterloo Avenue and are listed in a comprehensive record through the City of Guelph Inventory of Heritage Structures.

 Historic Guelph V43P17Advertisement for Bricks on Waterloo Road Source: GPL Guelph Advertiser 1850

 

Industry on Waterloo Avenue

The location of early industry was also influenced by the physical environment. Glacial deposits and bedrock ledges have provided Guelph with fine conditions for the generation of water-power. A watercolour by David Allan provides us with evidence of an early industry on Waterloo Avenue that was most likely situated to harness the power from Silver Creek at what was then known as the town limit. The "Red Mill" (so called for its painted wooden boards) was built by Florace Perry in 1831. Mr. Perry originally came to Guelph in 1830 to fulfill a contract to build a grist mill on the west bank of the Speed River for the Canada Company. After construction, he was so taken by the prospects of potential business growth in Guelph that he bought a piece of property on Waterloo Avenue and built a mill for himself. Saw-mills, however, were a short-lived economic activity and vulnerable to fires. Subsequently the only remaining evidence is Mr. Allan's painting. Silver Creek still flows from the north through Howitt Park (just east of the Hanlon), and south down to the Speed River. The same creek that provided power for the Red Mill also supplied the Phoenix Mill (1870), located at 358 Waterloo Avenue. Built from local limestone, this gristmill, once owned by M.J. Patterson and A. J. Butt, was strategically located on the periphery of town with frontage on Waterloo Avenue, thus providing linkages to other towns and potential markets. By 1912 the gristmill was converted to serve the Sterling Rubber factory and more recently (in 1991) was renovated into condominiums. The three stages of its evolution reflect a larger set of modernization processes that have led Guelph through an economic transformation. The gristmill typified a subsistence economy, whereas the rubber factory marked a turning point to industrialization. The presence of the condominiums, however, is indicative of a post-industrial economy characterized by a rising middle class and the decentralization of work.

Historic Guelph V43P18

Industrial development in Guelph in the 19th century was promoted extensively and attracted entrepreneurs from all over the world. One such individual was John H. Sleemary who arrived from Britain and purchased property in 1851 on the edge of town on Waterloo Avenue, where he built his Silver Creek Brewery. It was located on the Speed River across from the present-day Manor Hotel (originally George Sleeman's residence).

 Historic Guelph Silver Creek Brewery V43P19Silver Creek Brewery    Source: GPL Image Database, 2003

 

At that time it produced approximately 12 barrels of beer per batch and provided employment for between 30 and 35 of Guelph's growing population. John's son, George Sleeman, became the manager of the brewery in 1.862 and after his father's retirement' sole owner in 1867 The brewery continued to grow well into the 20th century but upon George's death in 1926 it was sold and became the Holliday Brewery. Subsequently, after a series of owners, the brewery was purchased and later demolished by the City of Guelph in 1967 to make way for the Hanlon Parkway.

 Historic Guelph The Guelph Elastic Hosiery Co. Ltd. V43P19The Guelph Elastic Hosiery Co. Ltd.     Source: GPL Image Database,2003

 

Individual buildings on the street have come and gone, each serving a different purpose, and each reflecting innovations and changing needs. The Guelph Elastic Hosiery Co. Ltd. was located on the northwest corner of Glasgow St. and Waterloo Avenue. It occupied the original building that had served as the South Ward School, built around the late 1880s to early 1890s. Around 1913 the school was listed as "vacant" in the directory and remained this way until 1917, when the Modern Paper Box Company acquired the property. It was not until 1921 that The Guelph Elastic Hosiery Company became the principal occupant of the building, expanded it and remained there until 1960. This building was then demolished and replaced by a service garage currently on the site. Recent clean-up of the site by the new owner, Mr. David White of College Auto Tech, has revealed the old timber foundation of the original building, and he was kind enough to share this history with me.

 

The Mercantile Town

The variety of buildings on Waterloo Avenue divulges a great deal about not only the diffusion of skills, but also the changing socio-economic climate over the years. A cross-section of the social structure and individual wealth can be seen, as simple limestone cottages stand in juxtaposition with impressive stone structures, which required more money to build. This phenomenon speaks of forces far beyond the boundaries of Guelph. During the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, two expanding classes arrived in Canada from Britain in search of new opportunities: the wealthy capitalist whose prosperity stemmed from a booming British industrial economy, and the trading firms, with the industrial workers that were employed by them.

Historic Guelph V43P20

 

Between 1830 and 1860 Guelph was a mercantile city, and development on Waterloo Ave. was a mix of residential and commercial buildings. Grocery and butcher stores, taverns, inns, a brick-maker, a furniture business and bakeries were haphazardly built along its streetscape where merchants hoped to take advantage of travelers entering and departingfrom Guelph. Numerous tradesmen and service providers lived along this avenue as well, including livery-stable owners, carriage-makers, stonemasons, building contractors, bakers and millers, all competing for business along this busy route. Evidence of its lively beginnings can be found in the Guelph Heritage Inventory (2003) where No. 7 has been documented as once being a grocery store, No. 91 a grocery store, and No. 36 a clothing store. Mr. Patrick Harnell operated a butcher shop in the limestone building located at No. 196 Waterloo Avenue at the corner of Edinburgh Road. Although over the years the types of goods sold have changed, it has always remained a retail establishment and serves as a variety store today.

The hotel "Victoria Inn" (1847) owned and operated by William Armstrong (the Guelph Civic Museum since 1980), provided accommodation for the weary traveller, along with Russell's Tavern, built as a wayside inn by order of John Galt in 1829. The only evidence of that tavern is a photograph in the Guelph Public Library archives showing the remains of its fireplace. As for the Victoria Inn, an advertisement in the Guelph Advertiser 16th of May, 1850 indicated that it was for sale.

 Historic Guelph V43P21Advertising Auction of Victoria Inn Source: GPL 2003 Guelph Advertiser

 

The owner, Mr. Armstrong, must have died and difficulties in selling the Inn were experienced. Mr. Knowles, an auctioneer who lived at No. 7 Waterloo Avenue, posted the above advertisement on December 17, 1850 to promote the auctioning of the Victoria Inn and some of the contents. For the next 60 years the building had a wide variety of tenants and owners. In 1910 the Inn was the property of a Mrs. Black who operated it as a rooming house for girls attending Macdonald College. The Knights of Columbus took over the building in 1931 and occupied it for 46 years.

Shifts in the economic structure of Ontario during the 1900s led to a redistribution of wealth, which can also be identified on Waterloo Avenue. Although the practical Ontario cottage has consistently been used for residential purposes over time, some have added attractive additions, as can be seen at No. 222. No. 25, an exceptionally beautiful, Italianate style two-storey building with Flemish bond brick, was built from limestone quarried from Waterloo Avenue. Built in 1862, this building was originally the home and office of a medical doctor. By 1957 lt had become the Skipper and O'Drowsky Funeral Home, and then in 1977 the office for Royal City Realty Limited.

 

The Coming of the Railway and Evolving Streetscape of Waterloo Avenue

Supported by the Railway Guarantee Act of 1849 which provided incentives by way of interest rates that were both attractive and fixed, the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) came to Guelph in 1856. Later called the Canadian National, it provided accessibility and connections fun- damental to growth, and quickly became a priority over roads. It left a profound mark on Guelph's urban core, disrupting the integrity of Galt's original plan and transforming the streetscape of Waterloo Ave. As the new railway line was plied, it resulted in the bisecting of the market centre and furthermore, its requirement for a low gradient along the river resulted in the truncation of Waterloo Avenue at what is now Gordon Street. The introduction of the Great Western Railway in 1857 compounded these changes by creating a by-pass for freight that would ordinarily have been brought into Guelph by road.

 Historic Guelph V43P22Figure 2. Truncation and By-pass of Waterloo Ave

 

The GTR also blocked access to the east and south of Guelph creating new street patterns which channeled growth to the north. The GTR ran parallel to Waterloo Avenue just one block north, inevitably resulting in the circumvention of freight that was once transported along this road. By the end of the nineteenth-century, Waterloo Avenue's role in region- al commercial trade was reduced to a local collection and delivery route to the railway, with Alma Street and the Silvercreek Parkway (running north from Waterloo Avenue) providing access to loading points for rail cars along the GTR tracks.

 

Social Changes

Implementation of the Education Act in 1841 created a Common School Fund which paved the way for the establishment of seven school districts and later, school buildings. St. James Ward School (later Torrance School), located at 151 Waterloo Avenue in dis- trict No. 3, was built in 1910. The building of this school was indicative of new societal attitudes to improve lives of the less fortunate by providing education for all children between the ages of five and sixteen years. Up to this point school systems had been comprised of District Grammar Schools which relied on fees that may have been beyond the reach of most of the area's residents. Two such schools were present on and near Waterloo Avenue. The first was built in 1841 in a building behind the Victoria Irur and, as previously mentioned, the South Ward School on the corner of Glasgow and Waterloo Avenue.

 Historic Guelph V43P23St. James Ward school (Torrance) 1910 Source GPL Image Database

 

 

Another emergence that reflected this new awareness was the establishment of a Children's Shelter at No. 35 Waterloo Avenue between 1901 and 1903. It is difficult to say exactly which building it was because mistakes can be made in documentation, and street numbers change over time. For instance, in the directories for 1901-1903 and 1903-1905 the shelter is listed as being on the north side of Waterloo Avenue. In the 1901-1903 directory it is itemized as No. 35; but for 1903-1905 it is No. 36. Between 1905 and 1907 1t is listed as No.39 and then in 1909 at No. 1.

The 1901 and 1911 censuses reveal that the building of Torrance School coincided with a demographic shift that increased the number of residents by 3,679 people, resulting in a 30 percent increase. This kind of growth would not be experienced again until the 1960s and 1970s as illustrated in the graph below, but each would be reflected in the Waterloo Avenue streetscape.

 Historic Guelph V43P24Source: F. Dahms in Matheson and Anderson 2000, 223

 

With an increase in population a need for more housing ensued. On May 30th 1912, plan No. 348 for Waterloo Avenue was submitted to the city for the purpose of subdividing part of Township Lot No. 1 in Division A. Following this event five two-storey houses, 'rectangular' and 'foursquare', of pressed red brick and featuring front porches, stone lintels and sills, were built. This grouping of homes can be identified between St Arnaud St. and Meadowvale on the north side.

Guelph's first local newspaper was published in 1842; Guelph's first library was established in 1850; waterworks and sanitary sewage were introduced in 1879; but the service that had the most profound impact was the introduction of electricity in 1887. The result was not only the rcorganization of work, but also the creation of many other services, one being the Guelph Street Railway along Waterloo Avenue, built by George Sleeman.

 Historic Guelph V43P25Gueþh Street Railway Source: D. Coulman in Matheson et al 2000,4

 

It opened on September 18th in 1895 and consisted of two lines with one running from Sleeman's Silvercreek Brewery on Waterloo Avenue to the Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk Railway stations in the centre of Guelph. With the brewery located at the end of the avenue and the establishment of public transportation, there was potential for strong development on Waterloo Avenue , but unfortunately it did not occur. At the time of its construction and for the following two decades, the street railway functioned primarily as an instrument for civic boosterism. Increasing costs due to maintenance and minimal profits forced it into receivership by 1903. Subsequently on September 28th of that year, through the collaboration of the banks and City Council, the Board of Trade committees and a vote by the ratepayers, the city purchased the line and renamed it the Radial Railway Company.

Compounded by Prohibition of September 1916, which affeclæd 44 breweries in Ontario, the Silvercreek Brewery closed its doors in 1929. Shortly thereafter, 1n 1937, the streetcars were removed from service and the only reminder of them is the stone car barns, still visible today at 371 Watedoo Avenue.

 Historic Guelph V43P26Stone Car Barns Waterloo Avenue.   Source: Guelph Inventory of Heritage Homes 2003

 

The Planned City and Subsequent Growth

By the mid 1900s, roads, railways, new services and the increasing influence of the government had shaped the way in which Guelph had physically expanded. Despite bisecting many of the streets and forcing development more northward, the railways at the turn of the century still maintained a centralizing effect on Guleph, in that goods and people were drawn to its centre. The introduction of the motor vehicle in the I920s, howevrq, and its flexible transportation routes had a decentralizing effect, which began to push the city limits outward. Zoning was timidly introduced in the early part of the century through new legislation of the Planning Act in 1946 (Zontng, 2003).Its by-laws shaped Guelph as centralized supervision over land development regulated the location of buildings or structures and the types of uses and dwellings permitted.

Once a part of the city's periphery, Waterloo Avenue has experienced significant change as a result of all these factors. The west end of Waterloo Avenue at the Hanlon Parkway has undergone several zoning changes that reflect the powerful forces of nature, technology and the government. In 1946, flooding from the Speed River forced the city to officially convert land use of this area from industrial to a green belt. By 1954 portions of the green belt had been re-zoned back to industry, but in 1963 Guelph zoning bylaw No. 5418 reduced the zoning to light industrial. Today, this same area has been rezoned to accommodate high-densify apartments and condominiums, and on a strip closer to the Speed River the land has been categorized as both a flood zone and a green belt.

 

New Growth Between 1960 - 1980

The decision to zone the area residential may have been encouraged by the annexation of several thousand acres of level land in 1966 for the development of the Hanlon Business Park, located south of Waterloo Avenue at Clair and the Hanlon Expressway. Prompted by an unprecedented growth of 78.7 percent from 1961, to 1981 and a projected population growth of 1.85 percent for every year until 2021., it was expected that the business park would provide a much-needed economic base and an increase in employment opportunities. The construction of the Hanlon Expressway, which skirts the western edge of the city, would also provide a vital arterial route extending from Highway 7 to Highway 401. Combined with the development and improvement of Wellington St. and the completion of the Hanlon-Wellington interchange in 2001, the impact on Waterloo Avenue appears to have result- ed in a second truncation that has almost completely severed it from its past. This transition is illustrated in Figure 4. This population surge may also explain the decision to zone parts of Waterloo Avenue to dense residential and approve the construction of six large condominium and apartment blocks between 1970 and 1987,located at240,270, 358,364,380 and 400 Waterloo Avenue.

 Historic Guelph V43P27Source: Compliation of Information deriaed from GHS 2002 and Guelph Planning Dept. 2003

 

The Future of Waterloo Avenue

Waterloo Avenue reflects over 175 years of imposed human will and ingenuity that have transformed the land from a natural to a cultural landscape. The street has never been static, often displaying the push and pull between individual decisions such as the building of a single cottage, to the imposed necessity of a school. Today the decisions remain quite similar. As we move into the future, a need for more affordable housing has predisposed Guelph city planners to favour a proposal to build 32 apartments on the site of the Calvary Baptist Church located on the corner of Glasgow Street and Waterloo Avenue. A similar proposal has been put forward for the site of the Salvation Army building on the corner of Birmingham and Waterloo, and again at Gordon and Waterloo. Walking along Waterloo Avenue it is evident that it lends itself to "infill". Use of the natural envirorunent and the cycles of development have left their imprint in the form of convenient blocks of level land such as that at Essex and Gordon Street where the Royal Organ factory was located. The width of Waterloo Avenue that impressed so many people 175 yearc ago has the potential to accommodate increased public transportation and traffic flow. But the movement towards "infill" raises concerns for the integrity of the street since development may jeopardize the heritage value of the road and its structures. Through the framework of The Ontario Heritage Act, 1,974, a number of homes on Waterloo Avenue have plaques near the front door indicating their historical legacy. These small acknowledgements of our past, however, can be overshadowed quickly if aggressive development is permitted. Waterloo Avenue tells an interesting story through an eclectic streetscape which retains evidence of the many stages of growth in Guelph, thus providing us with a culturally enriched environment that deserves our protection. Careful, thought ful, environmentally and socially conscious construction is demanded by the residents to ensure that not only the streetscape of Waterloo Avenue, but also those of Guelph in general, remain as vital and appealing as they ever were.

 

Table 1: Buildings on Waterloo Avenue

House # North Side

Year Significant Features Use: Past/Present
1 1844

Red sand struck stock brick. Neo-Classic Vernacular, 2 storey

Residential / Drop in Center Corporation

 

3 1913

Pressed red brick, 2 1/2 storey, Four squared

Residence multi unit

7 1853

Limestone, Neo-Classic Vernacular, 2 storey

Merchant grocery store / Residential

9 1860

Frame, rough stucco, Neo-Classic, Vemacular, 2 storey

Listed in Business Directory 1909 as bakery/ Residential

21 1847

Limestone, Largest structure of its time.  Exceptionally fine stone craftsmanship. Georgian style

Hotel "Victodan Inn"/ 19l0 Mn. Black's Boarding house/ 1951 Knights of
Columbus HalU 1980 Guelph Civic Museum

25 1862

Limestone, Italianate,2 storey, Flemish bond, exceptionally beautiful large building

MD office / Funeral Home / Real Estate Office

35 1890

Pressed red brick, Queen Anne Revival, 2 1/2 storey

Residential / reâr caniage house convefied to apartments 2002

43 1856

Red and White B¡ick (local clay), Itâlianate,2 storey

Residential owned by building contractor / multi-family residential

49 1905-07

Brick house

Residence

19 Glassgow 1930's

Câlvâry Baptist Church located on the corner of Waterloo Avenue and Glasgow

Church / plans to rezone to R.4D dense apartment containing 43 units. March l2l03

51 1940's

Initial structure a wood shack that se¡ved as cobbler, cunent structure bdck single storey with business beìow

Cobbler/ shoe rcpair and rcsìdence School / Comnercial

79  

Public School (1800s) Guelph Hosiery (1920s) Guelph Box Co (?) College Auto Tech (2003)

 
87 1900

Red pressed brick, Queen Anne Revival, 2 storey

Residential owned by building contractor / commercial and residential

91 1855

Limestone, Neo-Classic Vernacula¡ 2 storey

Residential/ grocery store/ Residential/ Prof. 91 Commercial

93  

Brick, single storey

Residence

107-109 1905-07

Pressed red brick, four squarcd, with addition

Multi-unit Residential

111 1910

Pressed red brick

Residential

115 1898

Pressed red brick

Residential

117 1870

Pressed red brick

Apartment & shops / 4 unit tenace

121  

Modem condominiums

Multi-unit Residential

133 1895

Pressed red brick, Queen Anne revival, 2 l/2 storey

Residential

139 1900

Pressed red brick, Queen Anne Revival, 2 storey

Listed as grocery or general store in 1909 business directory/ Residential

143 1900

Red pressed brick, Queen Anne Revival, 2 1/2

Residential

151 1910

Limestone, ashlil tooled and smooth, red pressed brick, Rlwardian Baroque, impressive structure

Tonance Public School / Montessori School

 
161 1881

Limestone, Neo-Classical Vemaculm (ltalianate), 2 storey

Institutional office/vacant
163 1870  White sandstruck stock brick Residential owned by a builder/ Residential
173 1874  White sandstruck stock brick with addition  Residential owned by a carriage maker/ Residential
179 1903  Red pressed brick, late Onttrio Cottage

Residential owned by James E. Carter Mayor/ Residential

185 1872  White sandstruck stock brick, neo-Classical Vemacular, 1 1/2 storey Residential
191 1870

Pebble-dash stucco, neo-Classical Vemacular, 1 1/2

Residential owned by a stone cutter/ Residential
193 1910

Pressed red brick, 2 1/2 storey, Four squared

Residential
197 1910

Pressed red brick, 2 1/2 storey, Four squared

Residential
205 1910

Pressed red brick, 2 1/2 storey, Four squared

Residential
207 1918

Cast concrete blocks, 2 1/2 storey

Residential
217/219 1923

Pressed red brick

Two unit residence
223 1905

Pressed red brick, 2 storey, Four squared

Residential owned by a builder
225 1880

Limestone, Neo-Classic Vemacular, 2 storey

Residential quarry owner
227  

Pressed red brick, with addition

Residential
233 1875

Limestone, Ontario Cottage, 1 storey

Residential
237 1880

Limestone, Ontario Cottage, I storey

Residential
239  

Stucco cottage comer of Meadowvale

Residential
251 1932

Buffbrick, stone lintels and sills, 2 storey.\
"Spook alley" runs between No.251 & 255,
Used to be a throughway up to the large Allen estate located on Meadowvale. It was blocked around 1930s. Now driveway for No .251 &.255.

Residential
 255  1927

1927 Buff brick, stone lintels and sills 2 storey

 Residential
 257  1923

Red pressed brick, stone lintels and sills 2 1/2 storey "four squared"

 Residential
 261  1910

Red pressed brick, stone lintels and sills 2 1/2 storey "four squared"

 Residential
 265  1910

Red pressed brick, stone lintels and sills 2 storey"rectangular"

 Residential
 267  1910

Red pressed brick, stone lintels and sills 2 storey"rectangular"

 Residential
 273  1910

Red pressed brick, stone lintels and sills 2 storey"rectangular"

 Residential
 275  1910

Red pressed brick, stone lintels and sills 2 storey"rectangular"

 Residential
 279  1910

Red pressed brick, stone lintels and sills 2 storey"rectangular"

 Residential
 287  1880

White buff stock brick , neo-Classical Vemacular 1 l/2 storey (St. Arnaud)

 Residential
 291  

Single storey brick

 Residential
297  

1 storey + 1/2 brick

Residential
315  

Single storey brick

Residential
317 1890

White buff stock brick, Onttrio Cottage, 1 storey

Residential
321 1878

Limestone, Ontario Cottage, 1 storey

Residential
335  

Pioneer Transmission

Commercial
343  

Professional Offices

Commercial
371 1875

Limestone, Neo-Classical functional, 1 storey

Industrial / Carbarn / Service Commercial
385  

White stucco "Orange Hall"

Special
387 & 411  

Waterloo Ave Court

Residential Complex
407  

1 1/2 storey siding

Residential
409  

1 1/2 storey siding

Residential
413  

Single storey brick bungalow style

Residential
# ? 1881

Limestone, Gothic Revival, 2 storey

Residential / Conference
485  

Single storey brick bungalow style new addition

Residential
487  

Newer brick & siding side split

Residential
501 1887

Elaborate , multi-storey, prcssed red brick,

Sleeman's residence / Night Club

 

House # South Side Year Significant Features Use: Past / Present
12  

Wellington Chiropractic Centre

Commercial
16 1850

Stucco frame cottage, I l/2 storey, newer stone veneer

One of the earliest doctor's offices in the city/ Residentìal

18  

Modem, 2 storey brick veneer

Residential
20  

Modem, 2 storey brick veneer

Residential
26 1880

Stucco frame cottage, 1 1/4 storey, wood sills, neo-classic, vernacular

Residential
28  

Pressed red brick 2 storey, keyhole window

Residential
34  

Brick 2 storey

Residential
36 & 38 1865

Limestone, Neo-Classic Vemacular, 2 storey

Merchant clothing store / Residential, Duplex

42  

Red pressed brick 2 storey

Residential
46  

Brick, West End Bakery

Bakers or confectioners 1909/ Commercial

52  

P¡essed red b¡ick 2 storey, Four squared

Residential
56 1903

Pressed red brick, Edwardian, 2 1/2 storey

Residential
60 1865

Limestone, Ontario Cottage

Residential
64 1865

Limestone, Ontario Cottage

Residential
68 1875

Frame, aluminum siding, Neo-Classic Vemacular, 2 storey

 Residential owned by builder/ Residential
70/72 1893

Pressed red brick, Queen Anne Revival, 2 storey

Multifamily Residential

   

Salvation Amy Citadel located on lhe comer of Waterloo Avenue and Bimingham
(address is 21 Bimingham)

Salvation Army Citadel / Plans to sell propeIy for new development made known in March 2003

88/90 1870

Light red pressed brick, stretcher bond, 2 storey

Double dwelling/ Commerciâl viliety store & Residential

92/94 1875

Limestone, Neo-Classic Vemacular, 2 storey

Residential duplex

98 1885

Pressed red brick, late ltalianate, 2 storey

Residential

100  

Modem brick 2 storey

Residential

108 1875

Red sandstruck stock bdck

Residential

110 1855

Fnme, vinyl siding Cottage

Residential

118 1856

Limestone, Onttrio Cottage,

Residential originally owned by school teacher

120  

Bdck 2 storey

Residential

128 155

Limestone, Ontado Cottâge

Residential

132/134  

Semi detached 2 storey brick

Residential

136 1905-07

Brick 2 1/2 storey

Residential

138 1905-07

Brick 2 1/2 storey

Residential

146 1857

Limestone, Ontario Cottage I storey

Residential

150/152  

Frame vinyl siding 1 storey

Residential duplex

156  

Frame 2 storey house with siding on the second storey and newer brick on the first, old foundation

Residential
158  

Pressed red brick 2 l/2 storey

Residential
162 1863

Limestone, Neo-Classical Vemaculm, I storey

Residential owned by stone cutter/ Residential
166  

Pressed red brick 2 l/2 storey, Four squmed

Residential
168 1859

Limestone, Ontario Cottage

Residential
170 1865

Limestone, Ontario Cottage

Residential owned by stone mason

172  

Pressed red brick 2 1/2 storey, Four squred

Residential

180  

Pressed red brick 2 1/2 storey, Four squred

Accountant business

188  

'Newer' single storey commercial block

Dentist business

18? No #  

Vacant single storey commercial block

 
192  

Single storey cottage brick veneer

Residential

196 1859

Limestone, Neo-Classic, Vernâcular 2 storey

Butcher shop/ grocery store and residential/ variety store

200  

Brick 2 storey 2 units

Residential
208  

Red pressed brick 2 storey, Four squared

Residential
210  

Red pressed brick 2 storey, Four squared

Residential
212/214  

Semi detached 'newer' brick 2 storey

Residential
216  

Brick 2 storey (rainbow)

Residential
218 1865

Limestone, Neo-Classic Vernaculm, I storey

Residential owned by a quarryman/ Residential
222 1875

Limestone, Neo-Classic Vemaculm, I storey with addition

Residential
226  

Steel or wood frame, white brick dense apartment

Residential
234  

Pressed red brick 2 storey

Residential
236  

Frame, siding, single storey

Residential
240 1971

Dense Apartment Block

Residential
260  

2 units single storey pre-dates 240

Commercial
270 1970

Dense ApaIment Block

Residential
300  

Bungalow style brick

Residential
340  

I l/2 storey siding

Residential
310 1890

Red pressed brick, 1 1/2 neo-Classical Vemaculr, 1 1/2 storey

Residential
316  

Red pressed brick 2 storey

Residential
324  

2 storey siding

Residential
326  

Pressed red brick 'rectangultr' 2 storey

Residential
330  

Red pressed brick 1 1/2 storey

Residential
334  

1 1/2 storey brick

Residential
338  

Max Vanety Store (1997)

Commercial
358 (a) 1870

Limestone, random course rubble, Neo-Classic Functional

(1870) Pheonix Grist Mill 1 (1912) Rubber factory / (1991) Residential

358 1987

Dense Apartment Block (Phoenix Mills Apafments)

Residential
364 1981

Dense Apartment Block (Phoenix Mills Apafments)

Residential
380 1978

Dense Apartment Block (Bryden Apafments)

Residential
400 1978

Dense Apartment Block (Bryden Apartments)

Residential

Source: Compiled from the Inventory of Heritage Slructnres, City of Guelph Planning Dept' (2003), the Couting lndex (1963 - 1974) by G. Couling, and Fieldllork conducted by myself (2003)

 

 

Bibliography

Byerly, A. E., 1935: The Beginning of Things. Guelph, Ontario

Bloomfield, E., and G. Bloomfield, with P. McCaskell 1983: Urban Growth and Local Services: The Development of Ontario Municipalities to 1981 University of Guelph, Department of Geography, Occasional Papers, No. 3,

City of Guelph,2000: Planning Division Population Projection Review, Statistics Canada Census 1996. http://www.city.guelph.on.cal  Accessed February 27, 2003

City of Guelph, 2000: Demographic Profile ,Population Growth and Projections http://www.city.guelph.on.cal Accessed February 15, 2003

Couling, G. 1963-1974: Couling Index of Homes in Guelph, General Binder. Wellington County Museum

Guelph Tîibune, March 11., 2003: Hallett, D.:Church-to-apartrnents raises

Guelph Public Library (GPL), 2003: Local History Archives, Archives Image Database http://www.library.guelph.on.ca/. Accessed March L, 2003

Guelph Civic Museum, Guelph (GCM) 2003: Wall, K. Assistant Curator. Ms. Walls provided me with selected maps from the archives

Inventory of Heritage Structures 2003: City of Guelph. Planning Department, City Hall, Guelph

Irwiru R. rN.1998: Guelph: Origin of City Street Names. Guelph Historical Society, Ontario

johnson, L. A. 1977: History of Guelph, 1827 - 1927 . Guelph Historical Society, Guelph, Ontario

Local Architectural Conservation Advisory Committee (LACAC), 1994: Designated Buildings and Structures of Architectural and Historic Interest in the City of Guelph. Publications Ontario, Toronto

Matheson, D. and R. Anderson (eds), 2000: Guelph: Perspectives on a century of change 1900 - 2000. Guelph Historical Society, Guelph, Ontario

Municipal Property Assessment Corporation (MPAC), 2003: Guelph, Ontario

White, D.,2003: Personal conversation with David White, owner and opera- tor of College Auto Tech. 79 Waterloo Ave., Guelph, Ontario

Zontng 2003: M. Castellan, Planner. Received information and documentation concerning historical zoning on Waterloo Avenue